Understanding Multithreading vs Multiprocessing in Python

Discover the differences between multithreading and multiprocessing in Python. Explore their advantages, limitations, and use cases for efficient concurrency.

12. Dec 2023
Understanding Multithreading vs Multiprocessing in Python

Python, known for its flexibility and ease of use, gives developers strong concurrent task execution capabilities. In Python, multithreading and multiprocessing are the two main concepts that are used to achieve concurrency. Despite their apparent similarities, they operate quite differently, each one being adapted to a particular setting with its own advantages and disadvantages. Comprehending their subtleties enables developers to utilize the most appropriate method according to the requirements of a certain work or situation.


In Python, multithreading refers to running several threads concurrently in a single process, sharing memory to facilitate effective communication. The threading module in Python is a powerful enabler that makes it possible to create and manage threads, which simplifies the handling of concurrent tasks in a programme or application.

Advantages of Multithreading

Efficient for I/O-Bound Tasks: Multithreading excels in handling tasks that necessitate waiting for I/O operations such as file reading or writing, internet data fetching, or database interactions. Its advantage is that threads can perform other tasks while waiting for these operations to complete, increasing overall efficiency by handling many operations at once and avoiding idle time during I/O-bound processes.

Resource Sharing: Threads within a process share memory, facilitating smooth data exchange. The shared memory feature facilitates the execution of particular algorithms and applications by optimising thread-to-thread communication and data sharing, hence improving computational performance across a range of activities.

Limitations of Multithreading

Global Interpreter Lock (GIL): Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) in Python prevents several native threads from running concurrently, which prevents them from running Python bytecode at the same time. This restriction reduces the effectiveness of CPU-bound processes in multithreaded programmes by limiting their capacity for concurrent execution.

Complexity in Synchronization: Managing shared resources among threads introduces complexities like race conditions and deadlocks. It becomes essential to use synchronization mechanisms like locks, semaphores, and queues to guarantee ordered access and avoid conflicts between concurrent tasks.


Python multiprocessing, as opposed to multithreading, entails running several independent processes, each with its own memory space. With the help of Python's "multiprocessing" module, programmers can effectively create and manage multiple processes, allowing for parallel execution and maximizing the performance of multicore systems for a variety of computational tasks.

Advantages of Multiprocessing

Parallel Execution for CPU-Bound Tasks: By avoiding the GIL, multiprocessing excels at CPU-bound activities and allows for true parallel execution. Because each process runs independently and effectively uses many CPU cores to do tasks in parallel, computational efficiency for CPU-intensive procedures is greatly improved.

Isolation and Stability: Processes protect the entire program from failure by providing resilience against crashes or failures inside a single process thanks to their separate memory regions. This separation makes sure that problems in one process don't affect the application's overall functionality or stability.

Limitations of Multiprocessing

Increased Memory Usage: Higher memory overhead is associated with individual memory areas for each process as opposed to multithreading, where threads share memory. When creating multiprocessing-based solutions, it is important to take into account the higher memory usage caused by this division of memory resources for individual processes.

Inter-Process Communication (IPC): Data serialization and deserialization incur overhead in inter-process communication (IPC). In multithreading contexts, this process of transforming data into a transferable format for transmission between processes has an influence on efficiency as compared to direct shared memory access.

Choosing Between Multithreading and Multiprocessing

Selecting the appropriate paradigm depends on the nature of the task:

Use Multithreading

  • For I/O-bound operations where waiting for external resources is a bottleneck.
  • When the focus is on concurrency and managing multiple I/O-bound tasks simultaneously.


Use Multiprocessing

  • For CPU-bound tasks that require heavy computation.
  • When there's a need for true parallelism and maximum utilization of multiple CPU cores.



In Python, choosing between multithreading and multiprocessing hinges on task nature, each offering distinct merits and constraints. Performance is greatly improved by choosing whether to use: multiprocessing for CPU-intensive processes or multithreading for I/O-bound workloads. Evaluating the attributes of the assignment guarantees a tactical choice, optimizing effectiveness and output in Python programs customized for certain processing needs.

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