50 Popular Python Interview Questions to Look Into in 2024

Uncover 50 must-know Python interview questions in 2024! Dive into Python's versatility and job market demands.

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1. May 2024
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50 Popular Python Interview Questions to Look Into in 2024















Python has become a go-to language for programmers worldwide, thanks to its readability and versatility. From its inception in 1991 by Guido van Rossum to its evolution under the Python Software Foundation, Python has earned its place as a top choice for various applications, including AI, web development, and more.

Its concise syntax allows developers to express complex ideas with minimal code, making it highly sought after in today's job market. In this article, we'll explore 50 popular Python interview questions, shedding light on the skills and knowledge expected of Python developers in 2024.

1. What is Python and why is it used?

Python is a high-level programming language known for its simplicity and readability. It's used for web development, data analysis, artificial intelligence, scientific computing, and more due to its versatility and extensive libraries.

2. Explain the difference between list and tuple in Python?

Lists are mutable, meaning their elements can be changed after creation, while tuples are immutable, meaning their elements cannot be changed after creation. Lists are defined using square brackets [ ], whereas tuples are defined using parentheses ( ).

3. What are the benefits of using Python decorators?

Decorators allow you to modify the behavior of a function or class. They are useful for adding functionality to existing code without modifying it directly, promoting code reusability and keeping code clean and readable.

4. What is the purpose of the '__init__' method in Python classes?

The __init__ method is a constructor method in Python classes, used to initialize the object's state. It gets called automatically when a new instance of the class is created.

5. Explain the difference between '==' and 'is' operators in Python?

The '==' operator is used to compare the values of two objects, whereas the is operator is used to compare the identities of two objects, i.e., whether they refer to the same object in memory.

6. What is the Global Interpreter Lock (GIL) in Python?

The Global Interpreter Lock is a mutex that prevents multiple native threads from executing Python bytecodes simultaneously. It exists primarily because CPython, the most widely used implementation of Python, is not thread-safe.

7. How do you handle exceptions in Python?

Exceptions in Python are handled using try-except blocks. Code that may raise an exception is placed inside the try block, and code to handle the exception is placed inside the except block.

8. Explain the difference between 'append()' and 'extend()' methods in Python lists?

The append() method adds a single element to the end of a list, while the extend() method takes an iterable (such as another list) and adds each element of that iterable to the end of the list.

9. What is a generator in Python and how is it different from a list?

A generator in Python is a function that produces a sequence of results using the yield keyword. Unlike lists, which store all elements in memory at once, generators produce elements one at a time, conserving memory and improving performance for large datasets.

10. Explain the concept of list comprehensions in Python?

List comprehensions provide a concise way to create lists in Python. They consist of an expression followed by a for clause, optionally followed by additional for or if clauses. They are a readable and efficient way to generate lists without using traditional loops.

11. What are Python iterators and iterables?

Iterables are objects that can be iterated over, such as lists, tuples, and dictionaries. Iterators are objects used to iterate over iterables, typically created by calling the iter() function on an iterable.

12. Explain the difference between == and is operators in Python?

The '==' operator compares the values of two objects, while the 'is' operator checks if two objects refer to the same memory location. In other words, '==' tests for equality, while is tests for identity.

13. What is the purpose of the '__str__' and '__repr__' methods in Python?

The __str__ method returns the string representation of an object when the str() function is called on it, while the __repr__ method returns the "official" string representation of the object, typically used for debugging.

14. What is the purpose of the if __name__ == "__main__": statement in Python scripts?

This statement allows you to define code that will only run if the script is executed directly, not if it is imported as a module into another script. It's commonly used for testing and debugging purposes.

15. Explain the concept of lambda functions in Python?

Lambda functions, also known as anonymous functions, are small, inline functions defined using the lambda keyword. They can take any number of arguments but can only have one expression, which is evaluated and returned.

16. What is the purpose of the super() function in Python?

The super() function is used to call methods of a superclass (parent class) from a subclass (child class). It allows you to invoke methods inherited from the superclass without explicitly naming the parent class.

17. Explain the concept of docstrings in Python?

Docstrings are strings used to document Python modules, classes, functions, or methods. They are placed within triple quotes ('''...''' or """...""") immediately following the definition and provide information about the object's purpose, usage, and parameters.

18. What is the difference between os.path.join() and os.path.join() in Python?

os.path.join() is used to join one or more path components intelligently, while os.path.abspath() returns the absolute version of a path. os.path.join() is typically used for constructing file paths in a platform-independent manner.

19. What is a Python dictionary comprehension?

Dictionary comprehensions are similar to list comprehensions but create dictionaries instead of lists. They consist of an expression followed by a for clause and an optional if clause, enclosed in curly braces {}.

20. Explain the purpose of the __init__.py file in Python packages?

The __init__.py file is used to mark a directory as a Python package. It can be empty or can contain initialization code for the package. When a package is imported, Python executes the __init__.py file to initialize the package namespace.

21. What are the differences between range() and xrange() in Python 2?

In Python 2, range() returns a list, while xrange() returns an xrange object, which is a generator that generates the numbers on demand. xrange() is more memory-efficient for large ranges.

22. Explain the purpose of the *args and **kwargs in Python function definitions?

*args allows a function to accept a variable number of positional arguments, which are packed into a tuple, while **kwargs allows a function to accept a variable number of keyword arguments, which are packed into a dictionary.

23. What is a Python decorator and how is it implemented?

A decorator is a function that takes another function as input and extends or modifies its behavior. Decorators are implemented using the @decorator_name syntax, where decorator_name is the name of the decorator function.

24. Explain the purpose of the '__call__' method in Python classes?

The '__call__' method allows an object to be called as if it were a function. It gets invoked when the object is called with parentheses, enabling objects to be made callable and behave like functions.

25. What are *args and kwargs used for in Python?

*args and **kwargs are used to pass a variable number of arguments to a function. *args is used to pass a variable number of positional arguments, while **kwargs is used to pass a variable number of keyword arguments.

26. What is the purpose of the '__len__' method in Python classes?

The '__len__' method is used to return the length of an object when the len() function is called on it. It enables objects to support the built-in len() function, allowing them to be used in contexts that require the determination of their length.

27. Explain the concept of monkey patching in Python?

Monkey patching refers to the dynamic modification of a class or module at runtime. It allows developers to add, modify, or replace attributes or methods of classes or modules to change their behavior without altering their original source code.

28. What is the purpose of the 'with' statement in Python?

The with statement is used to wrap the execution of a block of code with methods defined by a context manager. It ensures that resources are properly managed and released, even if exceptions occur within the block.

29. Explain the purpose of the '__slots__' attribute in Python classes?

The '__slots__' attribute is used to define a fixed set of attributes for instances of a class. It improves memory usage and performance by preventing the creation of a dynamic dictionary for attribute storage in instances.

30. What is the purpose of the 'sys.argv' variable in Python?

sys.argv is a list in Python that contains command-line arguments passed to a script when it is executed from the command line. The first element (sys.argv[0]) is the name of the script itself, and subsequent elements are the arguments provided.

31. Explain the difference between shallow copy and deep copy in Python?

A shallow copy creates a new object but inserts references to the original objects, whereas a deep copy creates a new object and recursively inserts copies of the original objects. Modifying the original objects won't affect the copies in a deep copy, unlike in a shallow copy.

32. What is the purpose of the __new__ method in Python classes?

The '__new__' method is responsible for creating a new instance of a class. It's a static method that gets called before the '__init__' method and is used to create the object and return it.

33. What are magic methods in Python and give an example?

Magic methods, also known as dunder methods (short for "double underscore"), are special methods in Python that enable operator overloading, customizing behavior for built-in operations, and implementing functionality for user-defined objects. An example is the '__add__' method, which allows objects to support the addition operator +.

34. Explain the purpose of the '__getitem__' and '__setitem__' methods in Python classes?

The '__getitem__' method allows objects to support indexing and slicing operations (e.g., obj[index]), while the '__setitem__' method allows objects to support item assignment (e.g., obj[index] = value). These methods are used to customize the behavior of objects as if they were sequences or mappings.

35. What is the purpose of the 'functools' module in Python?

The functools module provides higher-order functions and operations for working with callable objects, such as functions and methods. It includes functions like partial, reduce, wraps, and total_ordering, which enhance the functionality of functions and provide tools for functional programming.

36. Explain the concept of method resolution order (MRO) in Python?

Method resolution order refers to the order in which Python searches for methods and attributes in classes and their parent classes (known as the inheritance hierarchy). Python uses the C3 linearization algorithm to determine the MRO, ensuring a consistent and predictable method lookup order.

37. What are the differences between '__str__' and '__repr__' in Python?

The '__str__' methodis used to return a string representation of an object for end-users, focusing on readability, while the '__repr__' method returns an unambiguous string representation of an object for developers, focusing on debugging and introspection.

38. What is the purpose of the 'staticmethod' decorator in Python?

The staticmethod decorator is used to define a static method within a class. Static methods are not bound to an instance of the class and can be called on the class itself. They are typically used for utility functions that don't require access to instance attributes.

39. Explain the purpose of the '__enter__' and '__exit__' methods in Python context managers?

The '__enter__' method is called when entering a context managed by a context manager (e.g., a with statement), and it typically performs setup operations. The '__exit__' method is called when exiting the context and is responsible for cleanup operations, including exception handling.

40. What are the differences between 'os.path' and 'pathlib' modulesin Python?

os.path module provides functions for common operations on file paths, while the pathlib module offers an object-oriented approach to working with filesystem paths, providing a more intuitive and expressive API. pathlib is preferred for new code due to its readability and ease of use.

41. Explain the concept of duck typing in Python?

Duck typing is a programming paradigm where the type or class of an object is determined by its behavior rather than its explicit type. It emphasizes the presence of specific methods or properties rather than the inheritance hierarchy.

42. What are the differences between a set and a frozenset in Python?

A set is a mutable collection of unique elements, while a frozenset is an immutable collection of unique elements. Once a frozenset is created, its elements cannot be modified, added, or removed.

43. What is the purpose of the '__iter__' and '__next__' methods in Python iterators?

The '__iter__' method returns the iterator object itself and is called when the iterator is initialized. The '__next__' method returns the next item in the sequence and is called each time the iterator's next() function is invoked.

44. Explain the concept of multiple inheritance in Python?

Multiple inheritance in Python refers to a class inheriting from more than one parent class. This allows a subclass to inherit attributes and methods from multiple parent classes, leading to complex inheritance hierarchies.

45. What is the purpose of the '__del__' method in Python classes?

The '__del__' method is called when an object is about to be destroyed or garbage collected. It can be used to perform cleanup operations such as releasing resources or closing connections associated with the object.

46. Explain the purpose of the 're' module in Python?

The 're' module provides support for regular expressions in Python. It allows you to search, match, and manipulate strings using regular expressions, which are powerful patterns for matching text.

47. What is the purpose of the zip() function in Python?

The zip() function takes multiple iterable objects as input and returns an iterator of tuples, where each tuple contains elements from the input iterables paired together. It's commonly used for iterating over multiple sequences simultaneously.

48. Explain the concept of list slicing in Python?

List slicing is a technique used to extract a portion of a list by specifying a start index, an end index (exclusive), and an optional step size. It allows you to create a new list containing a subset of elements from the original list.

49. What are the differences between deepcopy() and copy() functions in Python?

The copy() function creates a shallow copy of an object, meaning it copies the object itself but not its nested objects. The deepcopy() function, on the other hand, creates a deep copy of an object, including all of its nested objects recursively.

50. Explain the purpose of the 'asyncio' module in Python?

The asyncio module provides support for writing asynchronous code in Python. It allows you to define asynchronous functions (coroutines) and manage asynchronous tasks, enabling efficient I/O-bound and concurrent programming using event loops.

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